Tenisul de masă este un sport în care doi sau patru jucători lovesc o minge ușoară de la unii la alții cu ajutorul unor palete. Jocul are loc pe o masă separată în două de un fileu. Un jucător trebuie să lase mingea jucată spre el să cadă o singură dată pe partea sa de masă și trebuie să o trimită înapoi pe partea de masă a adversarului. Jocul se desfășoară cu viteză mare și necesită reflexe rapide. Un jucător bun poate imprima efect mingii, ceea ce face ca ricoșajul din masă sau paleta adversarului imprevizibil.
Tenisul de masă este foarte popular, în special în Asia de Est . Este printre cele mai populare sporturi din lume ca număr de jucători, și unul din cele mai noi sporturi majore.
Acest sport cunoaște câteva denumiri alternative:
乒乓球 (Pīng Pāng Qiú) este numele oficial al sportului în China, Hong Kong, Taiwan și Macau.
卓球 (Takkyu) este numele oficial al sportului în Japonia.
탁구 (Tak-gu) este numele oficial din Coreea.
Jocul este reglementat de Federația Internațională de Tenis de Masă, fondată în 1926.
The international rules specify that the game is played with a light 2.7 gram, 40 mm diameter ball. The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24-26 cm when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm on to a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. The 40 mm ball was introduced after the 2000 Olympic Games. However, this created some controversy as the Chinese National Team argued that this was merely to give non-Chinese players a better chance of winning since the new type of balls has a slower speed, while at that time most Chinese players were playing with fast attack and smashes. A 40 mm table tennis ball is slower and spins less than a 38 mm one. The ball is made of a high-bouncing air-filled celluloid or similar plastics material, colored white or orange, with a matte finish. The choice of ball color is made according to the table color and its surroundings. For example, a white ball is easier to see on a green or blue table than it is on a gray table. Stars on the ball indicate the quality of the ball. Three stars indicate that it is of the highest quality, and is used in official competition.
The table is 2.74 m (9 ft) long, 1.525 m (5 ft) wide, and 76 cm (30 inch) high with a Masonite (a type of hardboard) or similarly manufactured timber, layered with a smooth, low-friction coating. The table or playing surface is divided into two halves by a 15.25 cm (6 inch) high net. An ITTF approved table surface must be in a green or blue color.
Players are equipped with a laminated wooden racket covered with rubber on one or two sides depending on the grip of the player. In the USA the term "paddle" is common, in Europe the term is "bat," and the official ITTF term is "racket".
The wooden portion of the racket, often referred to as the "blade", features, on average, anywhere between one and seven plies of wood, cork, glass fiber, carbon fiber, aluminum fiber, or even Kevlar. There are no restrictions as to what kinds of materials may be used, just so long as the racket consists of at least 85% natural wood. Common wood types include Balsa, Limba, Walnut, and Cypress or "Hinoki," which is popular in Japan. The average size of the blade is about 6.5 inches (16.5 cm) long and 6 inches (15 cm) wide. Although there are no official restrictions on the shape or size of the blade itself, these dimensions are optimal for most styles of play.
Table tennis regulations allow different surfaces on each side of the racket.[ The different types of surfaces provide various levels of spin or speed, or in some cases, nullify spin. For example, a player may have a rubber that provides much spin on one side of his racket, and one that provides no spin on the other side of the racket. By flipping the racket in play, different types of returns are possible. To help a player distinguish between different types of rubber used by his opposing player, international rules specify that one side must be red while the other side must be black. The player has the right to inspect his opponent's racket before a match to see the type of rubber used and what color it is. Despite high speed play and rapid exchanges, a player can see clearly what side of the racket was used to hit the ball. Current rules state that, unless damaged in play, the racket cannot be exchanged for another racket at any time during a match.
Starting a game
According to ITTF rule 2.13.1, the first service is decided by lot, normally a coin toss. It is also common for one player (or the umpire/scorer) to hide the ball in one or the other hand (usually hidden under the table), allowing the other player to guess which hand the ball is in. The correct or incorrect guess gives the "winner" the option to choose to serve, receive, or to choose which side of the table to use. Another method is for one player to hit the ball to the other and he or she returns it or by hitting it back and forth four times and then playing out the point. This is commonly referred to as "play to serve" or "rally to serve".
Service and return
In game play, the player serving the ball commences a play. The server first stands with the ball held on the open palm of the hand not carrying the racket, called the freehand, and tosses the ball directly upward without spin, at least 16 centimeters (approximately 6 inches) high. The server strikes the ball with the racket on the ball's descent so that it touches first his court and then touches directly the receiver's court without touching the net assembly. In casual games, many players do not toss the ball upward; however, this is technically illegal and can give the serving player an unfair advantage.
The ball must remain behind the endline and above the upper surface, known as the playing surface, of the table at all times during the service. The server cannot use his body or clothing to obstruct sight of the ball; the opponent and the umpire must have a clear view of the ball at all times. If the umpire is doubtful of the legality of a service they may first interrupt play and give a warning to the server. If the serve is a clear failure or is doubted again by the umpire after the warning, receiver scores a point.
If the service is "good", then the receiver must make a "good" return by hitting the ball back before it bounces a second time on receiver's side of the table so that the ball passes the net and touches the opponent's court, either directly or after touching the net assembly.And thereafter server and receiver alternately make a return until a rally is over. Returning the serve is one of the most difficult parts of the game, as the server's first move is often the least predictable and thus most advantageous shot due to the numerous spin and speed choices at his or her disposal.
A let is a rally of which the result is not scored, and is called in the following circumstances:
The ball touches the net in service, provided the service is otherwise correct or the ball is obstructed by the player on the receiving side. Obstruction means a player touches the ball when it is above or travelling towards the playing surface, not having touched the player's court since last being struck by the player.
When the player on the receiving side is not ready and the service is delivered.
Player's failure to make a service or a return or to comply with the Laws is due to a disturbance outside the control of the player.
Play is interrupted by the umpire or assistant umpire.
A point is scored by the player for any of several results of the rally:
Opponent fails to make a correct service or return.
After making a service or a return, the ball touches anything other than the net assembly before being struck by the opponent.
The ball passes over the player's court or beyond his end line without touching his court, after being struck by the opponent.
The opponent obstructs the ball.
The opponent strikes the ball twice successively. Note that the hand that is holding the racket counts as part of the racket and that making a good return off one's hand or fingers is allowed. It is not a fault if the ball accidentally hits one's hand or fingers and then subsequently hits the racket.
The opponent strikes the ball with a side of the racket blade whose surface is not covered with rubber.
The opponent moves the playing surface or touches the net assembly.
The opponent's free hand touches the playing surface.
As a receiver under the expedite system, completing 13 returns in a rally.
The opponent has been warned by umpire commits a second offence in the same individual match or team match. If the third offence happens, 2 points will be given to the player. If the individual match or the team match has not ended, any unused penalty points can be transferred to the next game of that match.
A game shall be won by the player first scoring 11 points unless both players score 10 points, when the game shall be won by the first player subsequently gaining a lead of 2 points. A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games. In competition play, matches are typically best of five or seven games.
Competitive table tennis is popular in Asia and Europe and has been gaining attention in the United States. The most important international competitions are the World Table Tennis Championships, the Table Tennis World Cup, the Olympics and the ITTF Pro Tour. Continental competitions include the European Championships, Europe Top-12, the Asian Championships and the Asian Games. Chinese players have won the men's World Championships 60% of the time since 1959; in the women's competition, Chinese players have won all but three of the World Championships since 1971. Other strong teams come from East Asian countries and European countries, including Austria, Belarus, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Sweden, and Taiwan.
There are also professional competitions at the clubs level. The national league of countries like China (the China Table Tennis Super League), Germany, France, Belgium and Austria are some highest level examples. There are also some important international club teams competitions such as the European Champions League and its former competition, the European Club Cup, where the top club teams from European countries compete.
Founded in 1926, the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) is the worldwide governing body for table tennis, which maintains an international ranking system in addition to organizing events like the World Table Tennis Championships.
On many continents, there is a governing body responsible for table tennis on that continent. For example, the European Table Tennis Union (ETTU) is the governing body responsible for table tennis in Europe. There are also national bodies and other local authorities responsible for the sport, such as USA Table Tennis (USATT), which is the national governing body for table tennis in the United States.
#24 by broke (ι’мα ƒυ¢кιηg ρяιη¢єѕѕ) (0 mesaje) at 2010-11-14 12:19:06 (483 săptămâni în urmă) - [Link]
#22 HaPpY_SmIiLe, cindva jucam in echipa universitatzii(USM) antrenor- domnu' Ni,acum din lipsa de timp fac antrenamente peste o zi(
Ukraina ,Polonia, Romania $i multe alte tzari unde am jucat.. medalii am ,sigur )